Hazrath Ali Rz was the fourth Caliph who succeeded the Prophet pbuh.Hazrat Ali Rz was the son of Hazrath Abu Talib Rz , a prominent Chieftian of Quraish and Custodian of the Holy Ka'bah. Hazrath Abu Talib Rz was the son of Hazrath Abdul Muttalib Rz , who was the son of Hazrath Hashim Rz , Hazrath Hashim Rz was a great man of his time and his descendants came to be known as Banu Hashim. Hazrat Ali's mother was Bibi Fatima Rz . She was the daughter of Hazrath Asad Rz who was a son of Hazrath Hashim Rz. Thus, both the father and mother of Hazrat Ali Rz belonged to Banu Hashim, and that was a great honour amongst the Arabs.
The holy Prophet pbuh was the son of Hazrath AbdullahRz who was the son of Hazrath Abdul MuttalibRz Hazrath AbdullahRz and Hazrath Abu TalibRz were own brothers. Hazrath Abu TalibRz was thus the real paternal uncle of the holy Prophet of Islam. Hazrat AliRz was the first cousin of the holy Prophetpbuh. The holy Prophetpbuh and Hazrat AliRz had a common grandfather who was Hazrath Abdul MuttalibRz .
Hazrat AliRz was born on the 13th of Rajab in the 28th year of the Elephant era. The birth of Hazrat AliRz would have to be placed around 599 or 600 CE. Hazrat AliRz was born at the junction of two centuries, the sixth and the seventh. Hazrat AliRz had the unique honour to be born in the House of God (Kabatullah). This unparalleled honour had endowed Hazrat AliRz with a halo of sanctity that has become the subject of many legends.Since his birth, he had not opened his eyes, and that worried both of his parents. However, when the holy Prophetpbuh took the child in his lap, then he opened his eyes. So the first person that Hazrat AliRz saw after his birth was the holy Prophetpbuh . The Holy ProphetPBUH said that since the child was born in the House of God, he should be named Ali (the word Ali meaning the most high). Hazrat AliRz had thus had the distinction of being named by the holy Prophet pbuh. . No one before him had ever been so named. Furthermore, the name acquired more sanctity because it was suggested by the holy ProphetPBUH himself.
He was first to embrace Islam as a 12 year old young boy. Another distinction of him was that he never worshipped an idol in his life time. Hence, it is said that his face is honored. Thus, the honorific "Karram Allahu Wajhahu", which means "God honoured his Face." This phrase is commonly used after his name by the Muslims from the early years of Islam.
In 623, Prophet MuhammadPBUH told Hazrath AliRz that God ordered him to give his daughter Hazrath Bibi Fatima ZahraRz to him in marriage. Thus Hazrath AliRz became the Holy ProphetPBUH son in law. Prophet Muhammad ProphetPBUH said to Bibi FatimaRz : "I have given you in marraige to the dearest of my family to me."
The ProphetPBUH loved him so much that once he told Hazrath AliRZ "Your blood is my blood, your flesh is my flesh, your bones are my bones and your soul is my soul." In the place called Gadeer, the ProphetPBUH declared after prayer that "One who holds me as his master, AliRz is his Master".
Hazrath AliRz valiantly fought for Islam in several historic battles and he was always triumphant. In all the battles, Hazrat AliRz was the flag-bearer for the forces of the Muslims. He was the greatest warrior among the Muslims. For his unusual bravery, the holy ProphetPBUH conferred many appellations on Hazrat AliRz such as "Haidar-e-Karrar" (the warrior whom nobody could match) , Asad ullah," (the Lion of God) , Abu Turab, Syedul Arab, etc. The ProphetPBUH declared his relationship to Hazrat AliRz as that of Moses and Aaron. (Musa and Haroon).
He was the conqueror of the Khyber.The holy ProphetPBUH entrusted Hazrath AliRz with the special mission of announcing the Quraish Sura "Al Bara'at" (Immunity) to the people on the occasion of the pilgrimage.
He was the most learned man of his age. He was a living encyclopaedia of learnings. After the holy ProphetPBUH , he was the most eloquent person of the age. Because of his knowledge and wisdom he is known as the "Second Solomon."
He was the first person to write a grammar of the Arabic language.
Among the early Muslims, he was the only person whose collections of writings have come down to us and this collection is preserved under the title of Nahj-ul-Balagha. He interpreted the doctrines of Islam and systematized them.
He was martyred on the 20th of Ramzan in the Mosque of Kufa. He was born in Kaba and attained martyrdom in a Mosque in Kufa in Iraq.
Hazrath AliRz faced innumerable odds and challenges throught his life. His life has been a priceless Golden Chapter in the History of Islam. His name and his memory has been giving a new courage and enthusiasm to generations of Muslims to face the challenges of their times. The ProphetPBUH gave him several good tidings of his high place in the paradise. The best way to pay tributes to the Maula ,The Ameer ul momineen , is to carry on his mission of propagating the love of God.
May Allah make us follow in the foot steps of this great Hero of Islam, Ameen.